DoD Civilian Employees require a passport and a Mission visa in their Official (maroon) or No-Fee Regular (blue) passport for entry into Italy. Dependents and civilian component members MUST obtain a Mission visa and an official (maroon) or no-fee regular (blue) passport prior to entry into Italy.
Members must apply for their passport prior to requesting a visa. Recommend applying at least thirty (30) days prior to departure.
The Italian Mission Visa Application Guide for family members can be found here: Italian Mission visa guide
DoD civilian employees are required to apply for a Sojourner Permit, the Permesso di Soggiorno. This document is issued by the Italian government. A Sojourner Permit is a confirmation of your legal resident status in Italy, much like an American Green Card. If you do not have a visa upon arrival in Italy, you cannot obtain a Sojourner Permit. It is different from a visa, which is merely an approval for entry to the country. Italian law requires all foreign personnel working or living within Italy, other than an active-duty service members under military orders, to apply for a Sojourner Permit within eight days of arrival in Italy.